Introduction

Air Pollution 2021 is the 29th Annual Meeting in the successful series of international conferences organised by the Wessex Institute dealing with Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution.

The meetings in this series have discussed and considered many important air pollution issues and the international nature of the attendees has ensured that the conference findings and conclusions enjoy wide and rapid dissemination amongst the air pollution science and policy communities. Air pollution issues remain one of the most challenging problems facing the international community. The series has demonstrated the wide-spread nature of the air pollution phenomena and has explored in depth their impacts on human health and the environment.

The scientific knowledge derived from well-designed studies needs to be allied with further technical and economic studies in order to ensure cost-effective and efficient mitigation. In turn, the science, technology and economic outcomes are necessary but not sufficient. Increasingly, the conference has recognised that the outcome of such research needs to be contextualised within well-formulated communication strategies that help policymakers and citizens to understand and appreciate the risks and rewards arising from air pollution management. Consequently, the series has enjoyed a wide range of high-quality papers that develop the fundamental science of air pollution and an equally impressive range of presentations that places these new developments within the frame of mitigation and management of air pollution.

This important conference brings together contributions from scientists from around the world to present recent work on various aspects of air pollution phenomena. Notable in each of the conferences in this series has been the opportunity to foster scientific exchange between participants. Each meeting has provided a further opportunity for identifying new areas of air pollution science demanding a collaborative investigation.

These meetings have attracted outstanding contributions from leading researchers. The papers selected for presentation and included in the Conference Proceedings have been permanently stored in the WIT eLibrary (see https://www.witpress.com/elibrary) from where they can be freely downloaded. These collected papers provide an invaluable record of the development of science and policy pertaining to air pollution.

The series started in Mexico (1993) and continued in Barcelona (1994); Halkidiki (1995); Toulouse (1996); Bologna (1997); Genova (1998); San Francisco (1999); Cambridge, UK (2000); Ancona (2001); Segovia (2002); Catania (2003); Rhodes (2004); Cordoba (2005); New Forest (2006); Algarve (2007); Skiathos (2008); Tallinn (2009); Kos (2010); Malta (2011); A Coruna (2012); Siena (2013); Split (2014); Valencia (2015); Crete (2016); Cadiz (2017), Naples (2018), Aveiro (2019) and Seville (2021).

Conference Topics

The following list covers some of the topics to be presented at Air Pollution 2021. Papers on other subjects related to the objectives of the conference are also welcome.

  • Air pollution modelling
  • Aerosols and nanoparticles
  • Emission studies
  • Health effects
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Monitoring, measuring and data
  • Air pollution control technologies
  • Industrial and transport air pollution
  • Global, regional and local studies
  • Climate change effects
  • Emerging pollutants
  • Air pollution management, policy and legislation
  • Low carbon strategies
  • Public perception and engagement
  • Emergent techniques and technologies
  • Biogenic emissions
  • Biomass emissions
  • Atmospheric modelling
  • Pollution dynamics
  • Air quality forecasting using satellite data
  • Environmental justice
  • Interdisciplinary studies on air quality
  • Transboundary air pollution
  • Anthropogenic pollution
  • Case studies

Benefits of Attending

USB Drive

Delegates will receive a USB drive at the conference containing the presented papers.

Publication

Papers presented at Air Pollution 2021 are to be published in a volume of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (Electronic ISSN: 1743-3541). The publication will be available in both electronic and hard copy.

Indexing

The WIT Transactions are DOI registered with CrossRef and are currently listed in indexing services such as Scopus and Google Scholar, as well as being submitted to the Web of Science. All conference books are listed in the British Library and American Library of Congress.

Open Access and Digital Archive

All conference papers are archived permanently on our electronic library where they can be downloaded for free (www.witpress.com/elibrary).

Peer review

To ensure the quality of our publications, abstracts and papers are double peer-reviewed by members of the International Scientific Advisory Committee and other experts, with manuscripts processed through CrossRef Similarity Check to screen for plagiarism.

Reduced Fee for PhD Students

The Wessex Institute believes in the importance of encouraging PhD students to present and publish innovative research at its conferences. As a result, the Institute offers PhD students a much-reduced conference fee.

Networking

Participants can present their research and interact with experts from around the world, as part of a unique community.

Journal publication opportunity

After the conference, delegates will be invited to submit an enhanced version of the conference paper to one of the WIT Press International Journals.

Publication of Papers

Peer review

To ensure the quality of our publications, abstracts and papers are double peer-reviewed by members of the International Scientific Advisory Committee and other experts, with manuscripts processed through CrossRef Similarity Check to screen for plagiarism.

Publication

Papers presented at Air Pollution 2021 are to be published in a volume of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (Electronic ISSN: 1743-3541). The publication will be available in both electronic and hard copy.

Indexing

The WIT Transactions are DOI registered with CrossRef and are currently listed in indexing services such as Scopus and Google Scholar, as well as being submitted to the Web of Science. All conference books are listed in the British Library and American Library of Congress.

Open Access and Digital Archive

All conference papers are archived permanently on our electronic library where they can be downloaded for free (www.witpress.com/elibrary).

Journal publication opportunity

After the conference, delegates will be invited to submit an enhanced version of the conference paper to one of the WIT Press International Journals.

Location Information

Santiago de Compostella

Old town from Santo Agostio towerSantiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous region of Galicia, which is an area on the northwest coast of Spain. The city is known worldwide for being the culmination of the Saint James Pilgrimage (“El Camino”), a religious tradition for pilgrims that dates back to the Middle Ages.

Hundreds of thousands of visitors arrive in Santiago de Compostela every year attracted not only by its religious importance but also for its cultural richness. It is believed to be the burial place of St James the apostle, one of Jesus’ disciples and the writer of one of the gospels of the New Testament of the Christian religious book, the Bible.

Santiago’s unparalleled monuments, monasteries, churches, palaces and old streets combined with its spiritual and cultural significance, have given the Old Town (Zona Vella) inclusion in the list of World Heritage sites since 1985. Santiago is divided into two main districts: the Old Town (Zona Vella) and the New Town (Zona Nova).

 

Attractions of the Old Town (Zona Vella)

Plaza del ObradoiroIn the Old Town, you will find not only Romanesque and baroque churches, museums and some of the oldest University buildings but also many cosy cafes, traditional and contemporary restaurants, interesting shops and some of the best nightlife too!

A central point of the city is the Plaza del Obradoiro. Life in the city seems to revolve around this square as it is the site of the Cathedral, Raxoi Palace, and the luxurious Hostal de los Reyes Católicos, said to be the world’s oldest hotel.

You’re likely to see pilgrims, many of them, who have been following the scallop shells which are the signposts of the Camino on its route to the city. To walks the Camino, pilgrims must complete at least 100 km, to obtain their certificate of participation, on one of the many routes from various locations across Europe including Portugal, the UK and Ireland.

 

The Cathedral

PeregrinoSantiago’s Cathedral was built over several centuries. Its beauty is a mix of an original Romanesque structure (constructed between 1075 and 1211) and later Gothic and baroque flourishes. The cathedral's artistic high point is the “Pórtico de la Gloria” (Gate of Glory) inside the west entrance, featuring 200 masterly Romanesque sculptures.

There is a ritual for visiting the Cathedral for the first time: admire the Portico de la Gloria, embrace the figure of St. James on the main altar, go down to the crypt, climb up to enjoy the rooftop view and if you’re lucky, within the Cathedral you may see the botafumeiro (an enormous censer) in action—they only use it on religious holidays or if requested in advance.

Around the Cathedral, every step is a discovery, with other charming squares such as Praterías (with the best view of the belltower, La Berenguela) or Quintana with its pretty stairs and other monuments like the imposing Monastery of San Martiño Pinario.

You can actually see the cathedral from the far outskirts of the city, and it seems as it was designed for admiring the Cathedral.

 

Regional food and drink

In addition to the cultural experiences offered by the city’s buildings, there is the cuisine of the Galician region to explore. Here you can buy and taste seafood fresh from the estuaries and coast, cheeses and Padrón peppers, or try the famous tapas.

Green peppers at the market You can also feel the real atmosphere of Santiago on Calle Franco and Calle Raiña, in the heart of the old town, where locals and visitors have been enjoying tapas “forever” and where you will find plenty of restaurants for trying octopus “a feira”, scallops, Santiago cake or wines like Albariño, considered one of the world’s best white wines.

The Rua da Raíña is the most famous street to go out for a few drinks with friends. Many bars and restaurants along the Rua do Franco display their octopus, shellfish and other Galician delicacies in their windows (vegetarians beware!) and most offer a free bite with each drink: croquettes, tortilla or even “tiger” filet (not really tiger meat, by the way!). After a few glasses of wine with tapas, you probably won’t need any dinner, but if you are still hungry, you can always order a few dishes to share.

Santiago’s food market Mercado de Abastos has a rural chic feel: traditional stores run by ladies from surrounding farms mixed with stylish stalls. Modernity and tradition really live in harmony in the Abastos area, with exciting new restaurants also opening their doors in recent years. Here you will find some of Galicia’s best produce.

The iconic dish to try is octopus (‘pulpo á feira’) – Galicians call it this, which means “in the style of the fair or market”, but the Spanish call it “octopus in the Galician style”!

 

Parks

Alameda Park and viewsThere are several green areas of the city, including the two parks, Alameda Park and San Domingos de Bonaval Park (Bonaval). Bonaval sits on the grounds of a Dominican convent’s old cemetery and has been re-invented into a secluded public green space by Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza. Next to Bonaval, you’ll find two of Santiago’s best museums: the CGAC (Galician Contemporary Art Centre) in a modern building also by Siza and the Museum of the Galician People (Museo do Pobo Galego) in the former convent. Bonaval is loved by visitors and locals, who like to enjoy a good book there or just relax under the shade of the oak grove (carballeira) on a hot day. Go for a stroll along the Paseo da Ferradura, get a nice tree-framed view of the Cathedral, sit by the statue of writer Valle Inclán or take a picture with the statue of ‘As Marías’, the two Fandiño sisters dressed in their colourful outfits. The sisters used to go for a walk in the Alameda every day at 2 o’clock on the dot. Alameda Park is also the central point for many celebrations in Santiago’s busy festival calendar.

 

The images above are included with thanks to the official tourism office of Santiago de Compostella: https://www.santiagoturismo.com/

Travel Information

Conference Venue Address:

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería (ETSE), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Air Travel

Santiago de Compostela Airport (SCQ)

Santiago’s airport has very good European links with direct flights to Amsterdam, Frankfurt, London, Milan, Paris and Rome. The airport is also well connected with other airports within Spain including several daily flights to Madrid and Barcelona, should you need to arrive in Santiago de Compostela with a connection via these two cities.

Web: www.aena.es/en/santiago-airport/index.html

From Santiago de Compostela Airport to the city centre:

Bus: The company Freire operates a service between the airport and Santiago de Compostela city. The bus runs every half an hour from 7am to 11:30pm and takes 30 minutes to get into town. The bus stops in several points within the city (bus station, train station, Rúa da Rosa 8 and Plaza Galicia).

Taxi: There is a flat fare of 21 euros to the airport. You don’t need to book, you can just follow the signs as you come out of the airport to find the taxi rank.

A Coruña Airport (LCG)

A Coruna Airport is 70Km away from Santiago de Compostela. Flights are available daily to A Coruña from Barcelona with Iberia and Vueling, and Iberia and Air Europa from Madrid as well as other Spanish cities (Valencia, Bilbao, Seville, Mallorca and the Canary Islands). Direct flights to A Coruña are also offered from London Heathrow with Vueling.

From A Coruña airport to Santiago de Compostela:

Bus & Train: Autos Capita bus 4051 connects the airport with the city A Coruna. Buses depart every 30 minutes on weekdays between 7:15am and 9:45pm, and every hour at weekends (from 7:30am Saturday and 8:30am Sunday, until 10pm). The 25-minute journey to the city centre costs €1.50. Stop at the train station (Av. Alfonso Molina stop), from there you can take the train to Santiago de Compostela. The journey takes around 30 minutes and the cost is between €5-7 Euro.

Taxi: Taxis are readily available at the airport and cost approximately €25 to travel to the centre of A Coruña. You can continue your journey from A Coruna to Santiago by train. The journey takes around 30 minutes and the cost is between €5-7 Euro.

Hire Car: Avis, Hertz, Europcar and Enterprise operate at the airport. The car journey from A Coruna Airport to Santiago de Compostela takes around 45-60 minutes depending on the traffic.

Rail Travel

Santiago de Compostela is well connected to other Galician cities and the main Spanish rail network. The main rail station is situated in Plaza de Madrid in the city centre, opposite the bus station. Long-distance rail services operate from Madrid, Barcelona (via Zaragoza) and Portugal.

To see schedules and fares please visit RENFE Spanish railways website –– www.renfe.es

Road Travel

Santiago de Compostela is easily accessed by the AP-6 motorway from Madrid or A9 from Portugal on the south. Should you travel to Santiago by car we recommend you find a hotel which offers a car park or alternatively you can book one the city public underground car parks.

ALSA operates long-distance bus services connecting Santiago de Compostela to cities in eastern Spain and Barcelona, as well as to Madrid, southern regions of Spain and Portugal.

ALSA – Long-distance buses – www.alsa.es

 

This information is correct as at 6th October 2020 but may be subject to change. Please check with travel providers.

Conference Venue

The conference will take place at the University of Santiago de Compostela. With a history of more than 500 years, the University of Santiago de Compostela has grown to become one of the most important universities of Spain, attracting more than 25,000 students every year. The university has several campuses located around the city within walking distance from the Cathedral.

Conference Venue Address:

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería (ETSE), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela

Accommodation Information

Venue Address:

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería (ETSE), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela


The city of Santiago offers a very extensive and varied accommodation range, from high-end hotels to traditional pilgrim hostels and B&Bs.
The conference venue is located on the university campus, just outside the city centre. Below you can find a list of hotels near the conference venue.

Eurostars Gran Hotel Santiago (4*) - 4 min walk to conference venue / 20 walk to the cathedral

The hotel: A very classic and elegant hotel, its 143 rooms are beautifully decorated and equipped with all commodities.

Address: Avenida Maestro Mateo 27, 15706

Web: https://www.eurostarshotels.com/eurostars-gran-hotel-santiago.html

Hotel Hesperia Peregrino (4*) – 8 min walk to conference venue / 20 walk to the cathedral.

The hotel: Equipped with all facilities, this modern hotel also offers a summer outdoor pool and fitness centre.

Address: Avenida Rosalía de Castro, S/N, 15706

Web: https://www.hesperia.com/es/es/hoteles/espana/santiago-compostela/hesperia-santiago-peregrino.html

Hospedería Vía Lucis PR (2*) – 6 min walk to conference venue / 20 walk to the cathedral

Address: Calle José María Suárez Núñez 6, 15705

The hotel: this hostel offers a simple and affordable option near the conference venue. This type of accommodation is very popular amongst pilgrims taking part in the “Camino”.

Web: http://www.hospederiasdegalicia.com/en/santiago/hostel-via-lucis

Hospederia ClaustroHospederia ComedorHospederia double roomHospederia tripple roomHospederia Bano

Additional Information

Please use the links below to access additional information related to the conference. All links open in a new window.

Here's what our delegates have to say...


"I consider that the events of the Wessex Institute are of great importance due to the scientific themes of its activities. [Developing] current affairs with excellent organization. Congratulations."
Roberto Rojano, Colombia (attended Air Pollution 2020)


"I was extremely pleased and appreciative of Ms Marta Graczyk‘s support throughout the registration and paper production process. I send her my utmost thanks and gratitude. "
Abdulkader Algilani, Saudi Arabia (attended Islamic Heritage 2020)


"This was my first experience in the Wessex institute conferences, I'm proud to be a part of this conference and article publishing. Many thanks to the efforts escorted by the Institute among the COVID19 pandemic. We would be honored to attend the next conference of Islamic heritage with such interesting topics with the variety of articles presented. Extended thanks to all the researchers taking part in the conference."
Haya S. Nasereddin, Palestinian Territories (attended Islamic Heritage 2020)


"I have participated in the last 4 conferences promoted by WIT. What attracts me at conferences is its extremely efficient organization, the high level of professionalism of the organizing team, the quality of the resulting publications(indexed), the care shown by the organizing team with the quality of the event, manifested in the post-conference follow-up surveys, in [the] attention to participants before and during the event, the adequacy of the duration of the conference, the size of the conference (neither too large nor too small) which provides a favorable environment for approaching and exchanging ideas, and (why not ?) the places chosen to host the events, always beautiful and conducive to post-event cultural enrichment."
Paulo Roberto Armanini Tagliani, Brazil (attended Environmental Impact 2020)


"Dear colleagues! We thank you for a very interesting experience of participating in a conference of this format. We hope that in the future there will be more events that contribute to personal communication and discussion of current issues by the scientific community. We look forward to participating in other events organized by the Wessex Institute."
Artem Salamatov, Russia (attended Environmental Impact 2020)


"I had a very nice experience of participating in the Risk Analysis conference as one of the conferences of the Wessex Institute. The procedures of sending the tentative abstract, evaluation, acceptance, registration, and presentation were very well-organized and also streamlined by a very supportive coordinator. I would definitely consider the Wessex Institute conferences, particularly Risk Analysis, for my future publications."
Abolfazl Shojaei Barjouei, Norway (attended Risk Analysis 2020)


"I had a great experience with the Wessex Institute. Communication, especially with Irene, was always detailed and responses were prompt and friendly. Wessex Institute rose to the challenge of holding a conference in the midst of a global pandemic; the online conference ran very smoothly and it was easy to navigate to each paper and its accompanying presentation. Looking forward to the next conference in the series, hopefully in person!"
Meredith Fyfe, Canada (attended Risk Analysis 2020)


"Congrats!! [...] the organisation was clear and fast... and everything was perfect."
Sebastian Bahamon, Germany (attended COMPRAIL 2020)


"I got new experiences through Waste Management 2020 and [learnt about] the problems of different countries, thank you."
Hiroya Matsui, Japan (attended Waste Management 2020)


"The Mission and Vision are excellent, in particular having conferences which promote development and enterprising business. You are thinking smart."
Charles Tushabomwe-Kazooba, Uganda (attended Sustainable Tourism 2020)


"I enjoyed attending this conference. Even if this version was online, the quality of the presentations was very high and everyone was really invested. The great variety of topics gives the opportunity to develop new ideas or to get new information about different kinds of scientific subjects. In addition, the conference manager was very reactive to any questions I had. That is why I would recommend anyone to attend this conference."
Gwenc'hlan Tymen, France (attended AFM 2020)


"Despite the special circumstances of covid-19, the conference was organized in an efficient and organized manner. I wish you all the best."
Mora Hana, Egypt (attended Eco-Architecture 2020)


"If you are in for interdisciplinary congresses, Wessex is the way to go. The size of the events is very good. You never feel lost and get personal attention before, during and after each congress. If you become a regular visitor, then you realise their unique way of doing things. Other congresses are frequently organized by a marketing organization. In this case, there is high-level science taking place in the same organisation. This and the other scientific elements (ISAC, supervisory board, chairman) provide a sound scientific foundation and basis for continuation. Thank you."
Jaap Vleugel, Netherlands (attended Sustainable Development and Planning 2020)


"My overall experience with Wessex Institute has been of excellent standard throughout. I have been impressed with the punctualities and perseverance of the organising committees."
Hicham Machmouchi, UAE (attended Sustainable Development and Planning 2020)


"It was my first experience, but a great one. Very professional coordination, positive approach of organizers, and diverse delegate’s attendance and topics. Accessible for all regardless of time differences, due to the on-demand format."
Fjollë Caka, Macedonia (attended Sustainable City 2020)


"Totally positive, well organized and responding [to] needs with ease."
Maria-Carmen Vicente-Torres, Spain (attended FRIAR 2020)