Introduction

Air Pollution 2021 is the 29th Annual Meeting in the successful series of international conferences organised by the Wessex Institute dealing with Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution.

The meetings in this series have discussed and considered many important air pollution issues and the international nature of the attendees has ensured that the conference findings and conclusions enjoy wide and rapid dissemination amongst the air pollution science and policy communities. Air pollution issues remain one of the most challenging problems facing the international community. The series has demonstrated the wide-spread nature of the air pollution phenomena and has explored in depth their impacts on human health and the environment.

The scientific knowledge derived from well-designed studies needs to be allied with further technical and economic studies in order to ensure cost-effective and efficient mitigation. In turn, the science, technology and economic outcomes are necessary but not sufficient. Increasingly, the conference has recognised that the outcome of such research needs to be contextualised within well-formulated communication strategies that help policymakers and citizens to understand and appreciate the risks and rewards arising from air pollution management. Consequently, the series has enjoyed a wide range of high-quality papers that develop the fundamental science of air pollution and an equally impressive range of presentations that places these new developments within the frame of mitigation and management of air pollution.

This important conference brings together contributions from scientists from around the world to present recent work on various aspects of air pollution phenomena. Notable in each of the conferences in this series has been the opportunity to foster scientific exchange between participants. Each meeting has provided a further opportunity for identifying new areas of air pollution science demanding a collaborative investigation.

These meetings have attracted outstanding contributions from leading researchers. The papers selected for presentation and included in the Conference Proceedings have been permanently stored in the WIT eLibrary (see https://www.witpress.com/elibrary) from where they can be freely downloaded. These collected papers provide an invaluable record of the development of science and policy pertaining to air pollution.

The series started in Mexico (1993) and continued in Barcelona (1994); Halkidiki (1995); Toulouse (1996); Bologna (1997); Genova (1998); San Francisco (1999); Cambridge, UK (2000); Ancona (2001); Segovia (2002); Catania (2003); Rhodes (2004); Cordoba (2005); New Forest (2006); Algarve (2007); Skiathos (2008); Tallinn (2009); Kos (2010); Malta (2011); A Coruna (2012); Siena (2013); Split (2014); Valencia (2015); Crete (2016); Cadiz (2017), Naples (2018), Aveiro (2019) and Seville (2021).

Conference Topics

The following list covers some of the topics to be presented at Air Pollution 2021. Papers on other subjects related to the objectives of the conference are also welcome.

  • Air pollution modelling
  • Aerosols and nanoparticles
  • Emission studies
  • Health effects
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Monitoring, measuring and data
  • Air pollution control technologies
  • Industrial and transport air pollution
  • Global, regional and local studies
  • Climate change effects
  • Emerging pollutants
  • Air pollution management, policy and legislation
  • Low carbon strategies
  • Public perception and engagement
  • Emergent techniques and technologies
  • Biogenic emissions
  • Biomass emissions
  • Atmospheric modelling
  • Pollution dynamics
  • Air quality forecasting using satellite data
  • Environmental Justice
  • Interdisciplinary studies on air quality
  • Transboundary air pollution
  • Anthropogenic pollution
  • Case studies

Benefits of Attending

USB Drive

Delegates will receive a USB drive at the conference containing the presented papers.

Publication

Papers presented at Air Pollution 2021 are to be published in a volume of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (Electronic ISSN: 1743-3541). The publication will be available in both electronic and hard copy.

Indexing

The WIT Transactions are DOI registered with CrossRef and are currently listed in indexing services such as Scopus and Google Scholar, as well as being submitted to the Web of Science. All conference books are listed in the British Library and American Library of Congress.

Open Access and Digital Archive

All conference papers are archived permanently on our electronic library where they can be downloaded for free (www.witpress.com/elibrary).

Peer review

To ensure the quality of our publications, abstracts and papers are double peer-reviewed by members of the International Scientific Advisory Committee and other experts, with manuscripts processed through CrossRef Similarity Check to screen for plagiarism.

Reduced Fee for PhD Students

The Wessex Institute believes in the importance of encouraging PhD students to present and publish innovative research at its conferences. As a result, the Institute offers PhD students a much-reduced conference fee.

Networking

Participants can present their research and interact with experts from around the world, as part of a unique community.

Journal publication opportunity

After the conference, delegates will be invited to submit an enhanced version of the conference paper to one of the WIT Press International Journals.

Publication of Papers

Peer review

To ensure the quality of our publications, abstracts and papers are double peer-reviewed by members of the International Scientific Advisory Committee and other experts, with manuscripts processed through CrossRef Similarity Check to screen for plagiarism.

Publication

Papers presented at Air Pollution 2021 are to be published in a volume of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (Electronic ISSN: 1743-3541). The publication will be available in both electronic and hard copy.

Indexing

The WIT Transactions are DOI registered with CrossRef and are currently listed in indexing services such as Scopus and Google Scholar, as well as being submitted to the Web of Science. All conference books are listed in the British Library and American Library of Congress.

Open Access and Digital Archive

All conference papers are archived permanently on our electronic library where they can be downloaded for free (www.witpress.com/elibrary).

Journal publication opportunity

After the conference, delegates will be invited to submit an enhanced version of the conference paper to one of the WIT Press International Journals.

Location Information

Santiago de Compostella

Old town from Santo Agostio towerSantiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous region of Galicia, which is an area on the northwest coast of Spain. The city is known worldwide for being the culmination of the Saint James Pilgrimage (“El Camino”), a religious tradition for pilgrims that dates back to the Middle Ages.

Hundreds of thousands of visitors arrive in Santiago de Compostela every year attracted not only by its religious importance but also for its cultural richness. It is believed to be the burial place of St James the apostle, one of Jesus’ disciples and the writer of one of the gospels of the New Testament of the Christian religious book, the Bible.

Santiago’s unparalleled monuments, monasteries, churches, palaces and old streets combined with its spiritual and cultural significance, have given the Old Town (Zona Vella) inclusion in the list of World Heritage sites since 1985. Santiago is divided into two main districts: the Old Town (Zona Vella) and the New Town (Zona Nova).

 

Attractions of the Old Town (Zona Vella)

Plaza del ObradoiroIn the Old Town, you will find not only Romanesque and baroque churches, museums and some of the oldest University buildings but also many cosy cafes, traditional and contemporary restaurants, interesting shops and some of the best nightlife too!

A central point of the city is the Plaza del Obradoiro. Life in the city seems to revolve around this square as it is the site of the Cathedral, Raxoi Palace, and the luxurious Hostal de los Reyes Católicos, said to be the world’s oldest hotel.

You’re likely to see pilgrims, many of them, who have been following the scallop shells which are the signposts of the Camino on its route to the city. To walks the Camino, pilgrims must complete at least 100 km, to obtain their certificate of participation, on one of the many routes from various locations across Europe including Portugal, the UK and Ireland.

 

The Cathedral

PeregrinoSantiago’s Cathedral was built over several centuries. Its beauty is a mix of an original Romanesque structure (constructed between 1075 and 1211) and later Gothic and baroque flourishes. The cathedral's artistic high point is the “Pórtico de la Gloria” (Gate of Glory) inside the west entrance, featuring 200 masterly Romanesque sculptures.

There is a ritual for visiting the Cathedral for the first time: admire the Portico de la Gloria, embrace the figure of St. James on the main altar, go down to the crypt, climb up to enjoy the rooftop view and if you’re lucky, within the Cathedral you may see the botafumeiro (an enormous censer) in action—they only use it on religious holidays or if requested in advance.

Around the Cathedral, every step is a discovery, with other charming squares such as Praterías (with the best view of the belltower, La Berenguela) or Quintana with its pretty stairs and other monuments like the imposing Monastery of San Martiño Pinario.

You can actually see the cathedral from the far outskirts of the city, and it seems as it was designed for admiring the Cathedral.

 

Regional food and drink

In addition to the cultural experiences offered by the city’s buildings, there is the cuisine of the Galician region to explore. Here you can buy and taste seafood fresh from the estuaries and coast, cheeses and Padrón peppers, or try the famous tapas.

Green peppers at the market You can also feel the real atmosphere of Santiago on Calle Franco and Calle Raiña, in the heart of the old town, where locals and visitors have been enjoying tapas “forever” and where you will find plenty of restaurants for trying octopus “a feira”, scallops, Santiago cake or wines like Albariño, considered one of the world’s best white wines.

The Rua da Raíña is the most famous street to go out for a few drinks with friends. Many bars and restaurants along the Rua do Franco display their octopus, shellfish and other Galician delicacies in their windows (vegetarians beware!) and most offer a free bite with each drink: croquettes, tortilla or even “tiger” filet (not really tiger meat, by the way!). After a few glasses of wine with tapas, you probably won’t need any dinner, but if you are still hungry, you can always order a few dishes to share.

Santiago’s food market Mercado de Abastos has a rural chic feel: traditional stores run by ladies from surrounding farms mixed with stylish stalls. Modernity and tradition really live in harmony in the Abastos area, with exciting new restaurants also opening their doors in recent years. Here you will find some of Galicia’s best produce.

The iconic dish to try is octopus (‘pulpo á feira’) – Galicians call it this, which means “in the style of the fair or market”, but the Spanish call it “octopus in the Galician style”!

 

Parks

Alameda Park and viewsThere are several green areas of the city, including the two parks, Alameda Park and San Domingos de Bonaval Park (Bonaval). Bonaval sits on the grounds of a Dominican convent’s old cemetery and has been re-invented into a secluded public green space by Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza. Next to Bonaval, you’ll find two of Santiago’s best museums: the CGAC (Galician Contemporary Art Centre) in a modern building also by Siza and the Museum of the Galician People (Museo do Pobo Galego) in the former convent. Bonaval is loved by visitors and locals, who like to enjoy a good book there or just relax under the shade of the oak grove (carballeira) on a hot day. Go for a stroll along the Paseo da Ferradura, get a nice tree-framed view of the Cathedral, sit by the statue of writer Valle Inclán or take a picture with the statue of ‘As Marías’, the two Fandiño sisters dressed in their colourful outfits. The sisters used to go for a walk in the Alameda every day at 2 o’clock on the dot. Alameda Park is also the central point for many celebrations in Santiago’s busy festival calendar.

 

The images above are included with thanks to the official tourism office of Santiago de Compostella: https://www.santiagoturismo.com/

Travel Information

Conference Venue Address:

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería (ETSE), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Air Travel

Santiago de Compostela Airport (SCQ)

Santiago’s airport has very good European links with direct flights to Amsterdam, Frankfurt, London, Milan, Paris and Rome. The airport is also well connected with other airports within Spain including several daily flights to Madrid and Barcelona, should you need to arrive in Santiago de Compostela with a connection via these two cities.

Web: www.aena.es/en/santiago-airport/index.html

From Santiago de Compostela Airport to the city centre:

Bus: The company Freire operates a service between the airport and Santiago de Compostela city. The bus runs every half an hour from 7am to 11:30pm and takes 30 minutes to get into town. The bus stops in several points within the city (bus station, train station, Rúa da Rosa 8 and Plaza Galicia).

Taxi: There is a flat fare of 21 euros to the airport. You don’t need to book, you can just follow the signs as you come out of the airport to find the taxi rank.

A Coruña Airport (LCG)

A Coruna Airport is 70Km away from Santiago de Compostela. Flights are available daily to A Coruña from Barcelona with Iberia and Vueling, and Iberia and Air Europa from Madrid as well as other Spanish cities (Valencia, Bilbao, Seville, Mallorca and the Canary Islands). Direct flights to A Coruña are also offered from London Heathrow with Vueling.

From A Coruña airport to Santiago de Compostela:

Bus & Train: Autos Capita bus 4051 connects the airport with the city A Coruna. Buses depart every 30 minutes on weekdays between 7:15am and 9:45pm, and every hour at weekends (from 7:30am Saturday and 8:30am Sunday, until 10pm). The 25-minute journey to the city centre costs €1.50. Stop at the train station (Av. Alfonso Molina stop), from there you can take the train to Santiago de Compostela. The journey takes around 30 minutes and the cost is between €5-7 Euro.

Taxi: Taxis are readily available at the airport and cost approximately €25 to travel to the centre of A Coruña. You can continue your journey from A Coruna to Santiago by train. The journey takes around 30 minutes and the cost is between €5-7 Euro.

Hire Car: Avis, Hertz, Europcar and Enterprise operate at the airport. The car journey from A Coruna Airport to Santiago de Compostela takes around 45-60 minutes depending on the traffic.

Rail Travel

Santiago de Compostela is well connected to other Galician cities and the main Spanish rail network. The main rail station is situated in Plaza de Madrid in the city centre, opposite the bus station. Long-distance rail services operate from Madrid, Barcelona (via Zaragoza) and Portugal.

To see schedules and fares please visit RENFE Spanish railways website –– www.renfe.es

Road Travel

Santiago de Compostela is easily accessed by the AP-6 motorway from Madrid or A9 from Portugal on the south. Should you travel to Santiago by car we recommend you find a hotel which offers a car park or alternatively you can book one the city public underground car parks.

ALSA operates long-distance bus services connecting Santiago de Compostela to cities in eastern Spain and Barcelona, as well as to Madrid, southern regions of Spain and Portugal.

ALSA – Long-distance buses – www.alsa.es

 

This information is correct as at 6th October 2020 but may be subject to change. Please check with travel providers.

Conference Venue

The conference will take place at the University of Santiago de Compostela. With a history of more than 500 years, the University of Santiago de Compostela has grown to become one of the most important universities of Spain, attracting more than 25,000 students every year. The university has several campuses located around the city within walking distance from the Cathedral.

Conference Venue Address:

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería (ETSE), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela

Accommodation Information

Venue Address:

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería (ETSE), Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. Campus Sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela


The city of Santiago offers a very extensive and varied accommodation range, from high-end hotels to traditional pilgrim hostels and B&Bs.
The conference venue is located on the university campus, just outside the city centre. Below you can find a list of hotels near the conference venue.

Eurostars Gran Hotel Santiago (4*) - 4 min walk to conference venue / 20 walk to the cathedral

The hotel: A very classic and elegant hotel, its 143 rooms are beautifully decorated and equipped with all commodities.

Address: Avenida Maestro Mateo 27, 15706

Web: https://www.eurostarshotels.com/eurostars-gran-hotel-santiago.html

Hotel Hesperia Peregrino (4*) – 8 min walk to conference venue / 20 walk to the cathedral.

The hotel: Equipped with all facilities, this modern hotel also offers a summer outdoor pool and fitness centre.

Address: Avenida Rosalía de Castro, S/N, 15706

Web: https://www.hesperia.com/es/es/hoteles/espana/santiago-compostela/hesperia-santiago-peregrino.html

Hospedería Vía Lucis PR (2*) – 6 min walk to conference venue / 20 walk to the cathedral

Address: Calle José María Suárez Núñez 6, 15705

The hotel: this hostel offers a simple and affordable option near the conference venue. This type of accommodation is very popular amongst pilgrims taking part in the “Camino”.

Web: http://www.hospederiasdegalicia.com/en/santiago/hostel-via-lucis

Hospederia ClaustroHospederia ComedorHospederia double roomHospederia tripple roomHospederia Bano

Additional Information

Please use the links below to access additional information related to the conference. All links open in a new window.

Here's what our delegates have to say...


"I very much enjoyed my first overseas conference. The presentations were extremely interesting and there was a great range of topics. The social aspect of the conference allowed for great networking opportunities, and the organisers made us feel welcome from the beginning. I would love to attend another WIT conference if the opportunity arose."

Mel Parnell, UK (attended Air Pollution 2019)



"I found the atmosphere to be relaxed and friendly, with lively intelligent discussion of all topics. Organisation from the beginning to the end was professional and efficient. I found immersion into the pool of knowledge both enlightening and stimulating."

Dene Warren, UK (attended BIM 2019)



"There were interesting presentations and valuable contacts with the conference participants. The conference was organized at a high level."

Aldis Kalpinsh, Latvia (attended CMEM 2019)



"The WIT disaster conference in unique in a way that it brings together practitioners, academics, a hybrid I call "pracademics", as well as consultants, NGOs, and think tank minds. The spirit of the conference reflects the vast fabric of those engaged in and passionate about safety and security of communities and disaster risk reduction writ large. Most importantly, voices of participants come from many corners of the world and lessons shared are truly illuminating."

Magdalena Denham, USA (attended Disaster Management 2019)



"It was a pleasure to have attended the conference. And it is an honour to have this conference as a stepping stone to continue my academic progress and self-improvement."

Amal Gerges, Lebanon (attended ERES 2019)



"The Maritime Transport conference was a great opportunity to discuss about the field with other professionals from different countries. The peer review of each paper guarantees the high quality of the presentations and papers. It is a must-go."

Zaloa Sanchez Varela, Croatia (attended Maritime Transport 2019)



"My contacts with the WIT started in the 1991 conference on Water Pollution. Since then I am participating in several conferences related to fluid flows. Apart of the conferences, in the first years of contact I presented a talk in 1998 at the Wessex Institute on the theme of turbulence influences in gas-liquid mass transfers. Along the subsequent years, it was always a pleasure to take part on the activities of the WIT, and to contact Carlos and the Staff."

Harry Edmar Schulz, Brazil (attended Multiphase Flow 2019)



"This conference allows a group of researchers and engineers from universities and industries to share their knowledge and experience in an environment which allows the attendees with different backgrounds to interact closely. It was a very good experience in this Multiphase Flow 2019 Conference."

Minyee Jiang, USA (attended Multiphase Flow 2019)


"The conferences held by the Wessex Institute are always characterized by a very high quality of participants and presented papers, and by a relaxed atmosphere, ideal for listening carefully and for doing networking. A peculiarity that I personally appreciate very much is the time given to the participants, slightly higher than the average of the other congresses (up to 20-25 minutes per intervention), which allow an exposition rich in details and not hasty."

Marco Bietresato, Italy (attended SAFE 2019)


"The STREMAH Conference 2019 has been my first international conference. Despite being an undergraduate student, just concluded my honours research, the conference gave me a platform to share my research, thus showing its relevance. It also gave me ideas on new and interesting problems to explore. At the same time, the delegates were very interactive, friendly, and open minded. I look forward to being part of more Wessex conferences."

Gilbert Kafuuma, Uganda (attended STREMAH 2019)



"Interdisciplinary and problem oriented event with friendly academic community to run the event as well as participate in it. Healthy mixture of people representing universities, business companies and community authorities gives additional flavour and grounding to matters discussed."

Robert K. Barelkowski, Poland (attended Sustainable City 2019)



"I have had a very good experience. I think that the idea of an institute that is interested in the communication and exchange of technological aspects of innovation, development, adaptation and transfer of methods and techniques is important for the development of similar institutions and the society that created them, as they put technology at the service of people, perhaps not independently, but differently from the institutes that serve large companies or corporations that, as we say in Mexico, are cooked separately, in terms of budgets, means of communication and scope."

Alfonso Banderas, Mexico (attended Water & Society 2019)



"I am keen on the identification of water management issues and scientific, technological and socio-economical solutions to solve those problems. Therefore, this conference was a great opportunity to obtain a first hand experience of addressing the water management issues in global context. In addition the conference was well organized in a professional manner providing friendly environment for discussions and networking with both young and expertise professionals and share knowledge."

G.A.G.Kavindi, Japan (attended Water Resources Management 2019)